United States Coast Guard Regulations Applicable
to Certain Vessels and Shipping During Emergency

Merchant Marine

Part 153-- Boats, Rafts, And Lifesaving Appliances; Regulations During Emergency

153.1 Definition of terms. Certain terms used in the regulations of this part are defined as follows:

(a) Emergency. The term "emergency" means the Unlimited National Emergency proclaimed by the President on May 27, 1941.

153.2 Additional lifesaving equipment on ocean and coastwise vessels. Ocean and coastwise vessels shall, during the emergency, be provided with additional lifesaving appliances as follows:

(a) Passenger vessels

(1) Life rafts. Passenger vessels shall be equipped with a sufficient number of approved life rafts to accommodate at least 25 percent of all persons on board, in addition to the lifeboats and buoyant apparatus required by Subchapter G of this chapter. Rafts shall be of not less than 15-person capacity each.

(2) Life preservers. Passenger vessels shall, in addition to having on board a life preserver for each person allowed to be carried, be provided with life preservers stowed on the boat deck for at least 25 percent of the total number of persons. These life preservers shall be stowed in chests so as to be readily accessible and in a manner as to float free of the vessel. The covers of the chest shall be of the "lift-off" type to insure release of the life preservers.

(b) Cargo vessels and tank ships lifeboat

(1) Lifeboats and rafts. Cargo vessels and tank ships shall carry a sufficient number of lifeboats on each side to accommodate all persons on board: Provided, That on ocean and coastwise tank ships of 3,000 gross tons and over, having superstructure amidships, and propelling machinery aft, the lifeboat capacity required by part 33 of this chapter shall be provided by at least four lifeboats, one on each side in way of the after accommodations and one on each side in way of amidships accommodations: Provided, further, That where the number of persons permitted by the certificate of inspection is augmented by the addition of Naval personnel for the purpose of protection or observation, additional lifeboat capacity for such personnel will not be required. Cargo vessels and tank ships shall, in addition to the lifeboatage required, be equipped with sufficient approved life rafts to accommodate all persons on board. Rafts shall not be less than 15-person capacity. The minimum number of rafts to be furnished such vessels certificated for routes exceeding 200 miles offshore shall be four.

(2) Life preservers. Cargo vessels and tank ships shall, in addition to having a life preserver for each person allowed to be carried, be provided with life preservers stowed on the boat deck for at least 25 percent of the total number of persons. These life preservers shall be stowed in chests so as to be readily accessible and in a manner as to float free of the vessel. The covers of the chests shall be of the "lift-off" type to insure release of the life preservers.

(3) Ladders. Cargo vessels and tank ships shall be provided with suitable flexible ladders to enable pilots to board and persons to descend to lifeboats and rafts as follows

1 ladder to be carried on each side of the vessel to reach from the boat deck to the light load line.

1 ladder to be carried on the navigation bridge to reach from said bridge to the main deck.

Effective May 30, 1943, at least one of the aforementioned flexible ladders of an approved type shall be carried for embarkation and pilots use. On and after June 30, 1943, all new installations or replacements of flexible ladders shall be of an approved type.

(c) Towing vessels manned barges, and miscellaneous craft

(1) Life rafts. Towing vessels, manned barges, and miscellaneous craft shall carry sufficient lifeboats to accommodate all persons on board. In addition, approved rafts to accommodate all persons on board shall be carried: Provided, That where lack of space or operating conditions prevent the proper stowage of life rafts, approved life floats may be substituted. Rafts shall not have a greater capacity than 15 persons nor a less capacity than 5 persons.

(2) Life preservers. Towing vessels, manned barges, and miscellaneous craft shall, in addition to having a life preserver for each person allowed to be carried, be provided with life preservers stowed on the boat deck, or uppermost deck, for at least 25 percent of the total number of persons. These life preservers shall be stowed in chests so as to be readily accessible and in a manner as to float free of the vessel. The covers of the chests shall be of the "lift-off" type to insure release of the life preservers.

153.2a Davits; lifeboats, construction of. The following provisions are, during the emergency, applicable as alternative details of construction for lifeboat davits to those provided in Sec. 37.1-4, 59.3, 60.21, 76.15, 94.14, and 113.23:

(a) Steel, structural. Where structural steel is used for the fabrication of davit frames or davit arms the material shall be made by either or both of the following processes: open-hearth or electric furnace. It shall conform to the following requirements as to tensile properties:

(In Substantial agreement with A. S. T. M. designation A 7-2k)

Tensile strength, psi 60,000 to 72,000
Yield point, min., psi 0.5 tens. str. but in no case less than 33,000

Elongation in 8 in., min., percent 1,500,000 tens. str.
Elongation in 2 in., mm., percent 22

lowering lifeboat

153.3 Lifeboats on ocean and coastwise vessels. During the emergency, lifeboats on all vessels operating on ocean or coastwise waters shall comply with the following additional requirements:

(a) Grab rails. Grab rails or other suitable means shall be substantially attached to each lifeboat, below the turn of the bilge, where practicable. Grab rails shall extend approximately two-thirds of the length of the lifeboat. Where wires or manila ropes are attached to the lifeboats in lieu of grab rails, they shall be so arranged that they may be detached when the lifeboat is waterborne.

(b) Readiness for lowering. When in the opinion of the master it can be done with safety, all lifeboats attached to davits other than gravity davits shall be properly griped in the outboard position so as to provide for immediate lowering in case of emergency. On all vessels guys are to be rigged from the davit heads when the boats are carried in the outboard position.

(c) Cubic capacity of lifeboats. On all mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise cargo and tank vessels which are certificated for the first time after January 1, 1943, the cubic carrying capacity of the lifeboats provided shall be calculated on the basis of 15 cubic feet per person. This rated carrying capacity shall be plainly marked on at least 2 of the thwarts. On such lifeboats the marking of the name plate with rated carrying capacity in persons shall be omitted.

(1) Air tanks of lifeboats. The air tank capacity in such lifeboats shall equal at least one-tenth of the total volume of the lifeboat in cubic feet and in addition sufficient air tank capacity shall be provided to float the boat (including its equipment) when filled with water.

(2) Provisions and water. In all cases such lifeboats shall be provided with water as required by these regulations for the number of persons which the boat will accommodate on the basis of 10 cubic feet per person. Provisions shall be provided for the number of persons the lifeboat is allowed to carry on a wartime basis.

153.3a Motor lifeboats. On all ocean and coastwise ships of 3,000 gross tons and over which are certificated for the first time after January 1, 1943, one of the lifeboats on each side shall be motor-propelled.

(a) Equipment. In addition to being provided with all equipment required for lifeboats, such motor lifeboats shall carry at least two 1-quart size fire extinguishers of the carbon tetrachloride type. Motor lifeboats carried on passenger vessels in compliance with § 59.5 of this chapter shall in all cases be fitted with a radio installation and a searchlight in accordance with § 59.11a of this chapter.

(b) Motor and accessories. The engine for motor-propelled lifeboats shall be of a reliable type, permanently installed inside the lifeboats.

The power of motor lifeboats shall be such that the speed through the water, in smooth water, shall be at least 6 knots when fully loaded. Under these conditions, fuel capacity sufficient for 24 hours continuous operation shall be provided.

Suitable provision shall be made for going astern.

The motor shall be protected by a weatherproof enclosure. The top of the enclosure shall be constructed so that it may be removed when necessary and shall be fitted with a ventilator of a water-protector type.

Fittings, pipes, and connections shall be of high standard and good workmanship and installed in accordance with good practice. There shall be a strainer between carburetor and fuel tank and an efficient hand starter.

153.4 Construction of life rafts. During the emergency, life rafts on all vessels operating on ocean or coastwise waters shall comply with the following additional requirements:

(a) Stowage. Life rafts shall be stowed on skids, launching ways or other alternative means to provide quick release of the rafts directly into the water and arranged so that they would have the best chance of floating free of the ship if there is no time to launch them.

153.4a Construction of life floats. During the emergency, life floats installed after March 31, 1943, on all vessels operating on ocean or coastwise waters hall comply with the following requirements:

(a) General provisions; approval.

(1) The standard specifications for balsa wood life floats are set forth in paragraph (d) to enable manufacturers to produce equipment which fully meets the approval requirements by strict adherence to all details of the standard specification.

(2) Manufacturers who desire to manufacture life floats shall submit fully dimensioned drawings and material specifications in quadruplicate in order that they may be considered for approval. After the plans and specifications have been examined and any necessary adjustments made, strength, freeboard, and capacity tests shall be conducted in accordance with paragraph (b).

(b) General characteristics of life float. Every life float shall conform to the following general requirements:

(1) Construction, materials, and workmanship shall at least be equivalent to that of the standard type.

(2) It shall be effective and stable floating either side up.

(3) It shall have a life line securely becketed around the outside of the life float, festooned in bights approximately 3 feet in length, with a seine float in each bight, and extra life lines or pendants shall be fitted approximately 18 inches apart.

(4) It shall be of such strength that it can be launched or dropped from a height of 60 feet into the water flat, sidewise, and endwise without damage to the body, or other damage affecting the serviceability of the float for the purpose intended.

(5) After the drop tests, the buoyancy of the life float shall be determined, and then be tested in fresh water for 48 hours while loaded with a weight giving a downward gravitational pull of 40 pounds for each person of capacity, the weight being out of water, or equivalent. The life float shall be reversed in the water at the end of the first 24 hours of this test. At the expiration of the test the buoyancy shall be again determined. Inability to support the test weight of 40 pounds for each person of capacity, or a decrease in the buoyancy of the life float of over 10 percent, shall be considered cause for rejection. Rigging and canvas cover may be removed and inspected for interior damage.

(6) It shall not be allowed a capacity of persons in excess of that established by actual demonstration.

(7) Every life float shall have a brass plate affixed thereon by the builder and bearing his name, the serial number of the float, the date of construction, dimensions, and number of persons the float is certified to carry. A blank space shall be provided for the inspectors initials, port, and the letters "U. S. C. G."

(8) In addition to the name plate, the number of persons allowed to be carried shall be stenciled in a conspicuous place on the life float.

(c) Factory inspection.

(1) An inspector shall examine the construction of life floats at the place where they are built, and, after he has satisfied himself that they are constructed in accordance with the approved plans and specifications, he shall stamp the initials of his name, port, and the letters "U. S. C. G." on a blank space on the name plate, and this stamp shall be satisfactory evidence that the life float has been constructed in accordance with said plans and specifications.

(2) One float of each size and type manufactured shall be selected at random from each group of approximately 30 completed floats and drop-tested from a height of 60 feet. The first one selected from the first group is to be drop-tested flat, the one selected from the second group is to be drop-tested sidewise, and the one selected from the third group is to be drop-tested endwise, so that out of 90 floats manufactured, three floats will have been drop-tested from a height of 60 feet, one flat, one endwise, and one sidewise; after the drop-test, the float shall be subjected to a 2-hour buoyancy test of 40 pounds downward gravitational pull for each person of capacity: Provided, That in cases where the volume of production and excellence of workmanship are such that the above number of tests are deemed unnecessary in the opinion of the inspector, one shall be picked at random from each group of 100 completed floats and given a complete series of drop-tests; i. e., sidewise, endwise, and flat as well as the initial 48-hour buoyancy test. One float out of each 100 shall be given this buoyancy test regardless of the number drop-tested.

(3) Reports concerning each test shall be forwarded to Headquarters and shall include the name of the inspector who conducted the test, the number stamped on the float tested, date and location of test, together with pertinent details of results.

(d) Standard type balsa wood life floats

(1) Types and capacities. Balsa wood life floats shall be of the elliptical or rectangular types, as illustrated by Figure 1 and Figure 2, Alteration 1, dated November 15, 1943, respectively, and shall be furnished in 10-, 15-, 25-, 40-, or 60-person capacities.

(2) Balsa wood. Balsa wood shall be of the genus Ochroma; weight not more than 14 pounds nor less than 8 1/2 pounds per cubic foot when thoroughly dry; thickness, 2 inches and over, to average not less than 2 1/2 inches, with not more than 50 percent of 2 inches thickness admitted; width, 3 inches and over, to average not less than 5 inches; length, 3 feet and over, to average not less than 5 feet, with not more than 40 percent of 3-foot lengths admitted. Pieces less than 2 inches in thickness but not less than 1 inch may be used, provided they are fabricated into blocks complying with the above dimensions prior to their being incorporated in the body construction. In assembling the various pieces, they are to be treated in the same manner as that specified for the gluing of the float body, the requirements for which are covered under paragraph (d) (4) of this section. It shall be sound, square edge, kiln dried to a moisture content not exceeding 12 percent, and shall be free from rot, dote, large or unsound knots, wormholes, and other injurious defects; except that one sound, tight knot, not over 1 1/4 inches in diameter and 160 scattered pin wormholes or their equivalent, will be allowed in every 5 square feet, surface measure, provided the pin wormholes do not exceed 1/32 inch in diameter and that there shall be no concentrations of more than 40 pin wormholes in any square foot of surface area. Pith which does not exceed 1 inch in diameter and which does not appear on the surface of the piece shall not be considered a defect. Boxed pith less than 1 inch in diameter shall not be considered a defect.

(3) Joint and seam arrangement. The balsa wood pieces composing each layer shall be as large as practicable in order to keep the number of pieces and the number of seams and butts to a minimum, but no layer shall be less than 2 inches in thickness. The pieces shall be so arranged in adjacent layers that butts and seams are staggered in order to give maximum rigidity to the whole and to minimize all channels through which water might penetrate. The grain of the wood shall be so laid as to give minimum end grain on the outside surface of the finished body. The use of small pieces for filling purposes in the interior of the body is prohibited. The use of small pieces for fairing purposes on the exterior of the body will be permitted, provided that the grain complies with the above requirement and that the pieces are thoroughly glued in place as hereinafter specified. All butted ends shall be square and smooth. All sides shall be smooth and straight. All butts and seams shall be tightly fitted.

(4) Gluing. Before assembling the various pieces, all end grain of each piece which will form part of a butt or seam shall be given a copious coat of urea formaldehyde or phenol resin waterproof glue. This coat of glue shall be allowed to dry before assembly proceeds. The parts then shall be assembled with a copious coat of the waterproof glue applied to each mating surface of each piece which forms part of a butt or seam. The body shall then be clamped until the glue is dry.

(5) Doweling and smooth finish. The rough body shall then be worked down to its approximate final form and then be doweled as necessary to thoroughly secure all pieces. Dowels shall extend through the entire body of the life float. They shall be of white pine, birch, douglas fir, or equal, 1/2 inch diameter, and be driven through a 3/8 inch diameter bored hole. Before driving a dowel, the dowel and its hole for the entire length shall be thoroughly coated with waterproof glue. After the glue has dried, the body shall be worked down to its final form. It shall be as smooth as practicable. If any gaps are found to exist in butts or seams, they shall be filled with shims glued in. The entire exterior of the body shall then be given a coat of waterproof glue, which shall be allowed to dry.

(6) Muslin wrapping. The body shall then be tightly wound with a continuous band of unbleached muslin, 4.7 ounces per square yard. This band shall be about 8 inches wide and shall be applied with an overlap of one-half its width, so that the final covering is two layers thick. As it is applied, the body shall be given a coat of waterproof glue, and care shall be taken that the glue thoroughly penetrates the muslin. After the wrapping is completed, the life float shall be again coated with two coats of water-resisting spar varnish. Alternate methods of treating and covering the exterior surface will be considered if the methods have been found satisfactory.

(7) Intent of subparagraphs (2) to (6), inclusive. The intent of the foregoing is to produce a compact monolithic structure without channels or opening through which water may penetrate the interior, and that it shall not only be waterproof at its exterior surface without the aid of further covering but that each piece of which it is constructed shall be a unit which will localize within itself any absorption due to exterior damage. Every effort shall be directed to this result during construction.

(8) Covering. The body shall be covered with a spirally wound covering of No. 10 cotton canvas having a width of 8 inches wrapped in waterproof glue with an overlap of 4 inches on each wrap. The canvas cover shall be given one coat of light gray canvas preservative paint. Alternate methods of covering may be submitted for consideration by the Commandant.

(9) Straps. The straps shall be 3-inch cotton tape or webbing having a breaking (tensile) strength of not less than 750 pounds for the 10- and 15-person sizes, and not less than 1,500 pounds for the 25-, 40-, and 60-person sizes.

(10) Thread. All thread used in the construction of life floats shall be No. 16, 3-cord linen or No. 10, 6-cord, glazed finish, heavy cotton thread.

(11) Platform, net, and rigging. The platform, netting, and rigging shall be in general accordance with Figure 1 or 2. Care shall be taken that the platform and netting will readily pass through the life float when it is launched, regardless of which side of the life float strikes the water. All parts of the platform, including surfaces, edges, and rivets, shall be smooth and present no cutting edges, points, or splinters which might be dangerous to a barefooted person. The platform shall be finished in natural wood and painted with two coats of water-resisting spar varnish.

(12) Life line and pendants. The life line around the life float shall be festooned in bights not longer than 3 feet, with a seine float in each bight. The extra life lines or pendants shall be fitted approximately 18 inches apart.

(13) Marking. Each life float shall be fitted with a name plate in accordance with paragraph (b) (7) and be stenciled with the number of persons allowed in accordance with paragraph (b) (8).

153.5 Construction of buoyant apparatus. During the emergency, the following details of construction of buoyant apparatus are provided for:

(a) Air tanks. Ferrous metals, properly galvanized of a thickness not less than No. 20 B. W. G. for tanks of 15 cubic feet capacity or less, and a thickness of not less than No. 18 B. W. G. for tanks of over 15 cubic feet capacity may be permitted on air tanks constructed during emergency: Provided, That in cases where galvanized iron tanks are used under the emergency provision, the name plate shall show the notation "Gal. air tanks."

153.6 Additional equipment for lifeboats on self-propelled ocean and coastwise vessels. The following additional equipment shall, during the emergency, be provided:

(a) Bilge pump. Lifeboats constructed on or after January 1, 1943, shall be equipped with an approved semi-rotary wing type or equally suitable and efficient bilge pump permanently affixed in a suitable position in the boat. The pump shall be of a type not easily deranged, the materials used in its construction shall be of a character not readily deteriorated by the action of salt water, and it shall be so constructed as to be readily disassembled for repairs. A suitable foot valve shall be located on the suction side of the pump and the suction opening shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than 0.7854 square inch. The pump shall be located well down in the center line of the boat and be fitted with a flexible discharge hose at least 6 feet in length and having a cross-sectional area of opening not less than that of the suction opening.

(1) Lifeboats built prior to January 1, 1943, shall be provided with a pump of the type specified above or a good quality barrel bilge pump may be provided. The material of which the pump is manufactured shall be of a corrosion-resisting character. The barrel shall be at least 2 inches in diameter and fitted with a discharge hose at least 6 feet in length and not less than 1.5 inches in diameter.

(2) All pump suctions shall be fitted with suitable strainers and provision shall be made for allowing the strainer to be cleaned.

(b) Blankets. At least six woolen blankets in waterproof covers.

(c) Chart. A current Hydrographic Office (U. S. Navy) pilot chart of the waters navigated, in a metal container (similar to a sounding tube case).

(d) Drinking cups. A total of three drinking cups, at least two of which shall be of the well-bucket type, consisting of a tubular bucket about 1 inch in diameter and 3 inches long, marked in one-half ounce graduations. A chain or lanyard shall be attached to bucket-type cups in order that they may be dropped into the drinking water tanks. Drinking cups shall be fabricated of rust-resisting material.

(e) First-aid kit.

(1) First-aid kits in all lifeboats constructed on and after January 1, 1944, shall be of an approved 24-unit type.

(2) All first-aid kits procured for use in lifeboats prior to January 1, 1944, which complied with the applicable regulations, need not be replaced, and may be continued in use, provided such first-aid kits are complete and in good and serviceable condition.

(3) Replacements of first-aid kits in all lifeboats subsequent to January 1, 1944, shall be of an approved 24-unit type.

(f) Flashlight batteries. Three extra 3-cell approved flashlight batteries in a waterproof package.

(g) Canvas hood and side spray curtain. A canvas hood and side spray curtain to provide shelter to the occupants of the boat. The hood and curtain shall be made of No. 8 yellow, waterproofed cotton duck. The canvas hood should extend from the stem to the mast, but not less than approximately one-third of the length of the lifeboat, and must be easy to rig.

The side spray curtain shall extend from the after side of the canvas hood to approximately the after thwart and shall extend about 12 inches above the gunwale. The side spray curtain may be held in place by means of rods installed in the rowlock sockets so as to be easily transferred from side to side according to the direction of the wind.

(h) Lamp wicks. Two lamp wicks in waterproof container.

(i) Massage oil. One gallon of oil of a type suitable for massaging the feet and legs.

(j) Mast and sail. In addition to the mast, sail, and rigging, a suitable jib and 30 fathoms of 15-thread manila line shall be provided. New sails for lifeboats, as well as replacements for existing sails, are to be red or chrome yellow in color for the purpose of increasing their visibility on the water and from the air.

(k) Matches. Two additional boxes of friction matches.

(l) Painter. The painter required by § 59.11 of this chapter shall be secured in the forward part of the boat with a strop eye and toggle so that it may be rigged as a sea painter and readily released from the boat. An additional painter, 15 fathoms of 2~-inch manila, shall be secured to the stem and coiled in the boat ready for use.

(m) Provisions. The provisions consisting of hard bread or equivalent of approved emergency ration, shall be removed from the lifeboats and the following provisions shall be provided for each person the boat is certificated to carry:

(1) Fourteen ounces of biscuits known as "Type C" ration covered by U. S. Army specifications. [The size and number of biscuits in each package, as well as the general specification, for the package covering are as follows: Each biscuit should measure approximately 2 9/16 inches square by 5/16 inch thick. The biscuits will be packed and heat-sealed in moisture and grease-resisting wax glassine paper.]

(2) Fourteen ounces of pemmican covered by specifications for U. S. Navy Aircraft Emergency Ration Pemmican.

(3) Fourteen ounces of chocolate tablets in waterproof packages or containers, or an additional 14 ounces of biscuits "Type C" rations covered by U. S. Army specifications.

(4) Fourteen ounces of milk tablets in waterproof packages or containers. Compliance with this requirement and with the requirements of paragraph (p) of this section shall dispense with compliance with the requirements of Secs. 59.11 (w) and 60.9 (w) of this chapter relating to the carrying of condensed milk.

(5) On and after November 1, 1944, the provisions required by this section shall be packaged in hermetically sealed containers of an approved type and stowed in provision lockers or other compartments providing suitable protection.

(6) Equivalents in calorific value may be substituted for pemmican required by item (2) and the milk tablets required by item (4) or both, provided that the substitutes and packing are satisfactory for lifeboat use. Samples of proposed substitutes shall be submitted to the Commandant for approval.

(o) Tiller. A suitable tiller to be fitted to the rudder.

(p) Water containers

(1) Existing lifeboats. Lifeboats constructed prior to October 15, 1942, shall carry a total of at least 10 quarts of water for each person the boat will, on the basis of 10 cubic feet per person, accommodate. An equal number of air tanks, from each side of the boat, may be removed and replaced with water containers, or the air tanks may be converted to water containers by reinforcing them where necessary and securely attaching a watertight fitting at the top of each tank through which the water may be extracted. No valves, cocks, etc., for drawing off the water shall be fitted. The drinking water previously required in existing boats may also be carried in these side water containers if capacity and other considerations make it desirable.

On and after November 1, 1944, the drinking water required by this section shall be contained in hermetically sealed cans of an approved type and stowed in the drinking water tanks, lockers or other compartments providing suitable protection.

(2) New lifeboats. Lifeboats constructed after October 15, 1942, shall be provided with at least 10 quarts of fresh water for each person the boat will, on the basis of 10 cubic feet per person, accommodate. Drinking water shall be distributed and stowed as follows:

Four separate tanks preferably having approximately the same capacities equally distributed in inboard and outboard locations, as for example: one side tank port and one side tank starboard under the side benches plus two inboard tanks symmetrically located under the side benches, thwarts, or in the ends of the boat.

Drinking water tanks shall be substantially constructed of galvanized steel or equivalent corrosive-resistant material. When a tank has a capacity in excess of 25 gallons, a swash plate shall be fitted. A threaded nipple, approximately 2 inches inside diameter, is to be substantially attached to the top of the tank. The nipple is to project upward a sufficient distance to receive a corrosive-resistant screw cap knurled or otherwise provided with means so that it can be easily removed by hand. A reinforced opening not less than 5 inches in diameter fitted with a watertight cover shall be provided in the upper portion of each tank to permit internal examination and treatment. No spigot or cocks are to be fitted. A threaded metal drain plug and flange shall be provided in the bottom of each tank in such position that it is easily accessible for removal by wrench when the tank is in its stowed position in the boat. Water tanks shall be substantially supported away from the inside of the boat and shall be readily removable for examination.

On and after November 1, 1944, the drinking water required by this section shall be contained in hermetically sealed cans of an approved type and stowed in the drinking water tanks, lockers or other compartments providing suitable protection.

Alternate methods of water stowage and distribution may be submitted for consideration by the Commandant.

(q) Wooden plugs. Not less than 25 softwood plugs 3 inches long, tapered from 1/4 to 3/4-inch diameter and contained in a canvas bag.

(r) Signal pistol. There is to be provided for each lifeboat, an approved signal pistol outfit consisting of a pistol with lanyard, and 12 approved parachute red signal cartridges, all contained in a watertight metal case properly marked.

(s) Fishing kit. On every ocean vessel of over 3,000 gross tons there shall be provided in each lifeboat one approved fishing kit consisting of the following equipment:

1 pair, gloves, cotton, commercial grade.

1 knife, 2 inches high carbon steel blade, thickness of blade 0.060 inch, tempered to test 0.56 to 0.60, well riveted into a wooden handle 6 inches long, 3/4-inch wide by 1/2-inch in thickness. Handle to be smooth and shaped, with a 1/4-inch hole in end for attaching 3 feet of 10-pound cord. Knife must be able to float. Blade to be guarded with a water-proofed paper tube 5 1/4 -inches long by 5/8-inch inside diameter.

1 package containing the following items:

1 sinker, egg-shaped, with 7/64-inch hole in center, weight 2 ounces, with 3 feet of 10-pound cord attached to wooden handle containing the abrasive stone.

1 dozen pork rinds, dehydrated strips 4 inches long, 1/2-inch wide, ends tapered to approximately 1/8-inch, and rounded, one end to have two hook-holds cut 3/8-inch and 7/8-inch from end respectively.

1 No. 1/0 OShaughnessy hook, attached to 6 inches of No. 9 stainless steel wire, other end attached to a No. 5 barrel swivel.

1 No. 3/0 OShaughnessy hook attached to 6 inches of No. 9 stainless steel wire, other end attached to a No. 5 barrel swivel.

1 No. 7/0 OShaughnessy hook attached to 6 inches of No. 9 stainless steel wire, other end attached to a No. 2 barrel swivel.

1 No. 2 OShaughnessy hook attached to 6 inches of No. 5 stainless steel wire, other end attached to a No. 5 barrel swivel.

1 No. 6 OShaughnessy hook equipped with 3 inches of No. 5 stainless steel wire, other end attached to a No. 5 barrel swivel.

1 abrasive stone, size 3/4-inch by 1 7/8-inch by 1/4-inch, firmly cemented with waterproof cement into a wooden handle of sufficient size to make the unit buoyant. A 1/4-inch hole shall be in the end of the wooden handle, with 3 feet of 10-pound cord attached.

NOTE: All of the hooks in this package shall be firmly attached to a piece of tapered cork, 1 inch by 3/4-inch diameter maximum and attached to the wooden handle containing the abrasive stone.

1 set of instructions shall be printed on PAR-A-PAR paper.

1 dip net, 12 inches deep by approximately 16 inches across the top and bottom when folded flat. Cotton mosquito netting mounted on 12 gage galvanized market wire. Ends of wire to be securely fastened in a round wooden handle 4 inches long by 1 inch in diameter, tapered both ends. Over-all length of net folded not over 16 inches, to be folded once to approximate packing length of 8 inches.

3 feet of 10-pound cord to be attached to the handle and the front end of net.

1 fishing rig No. 1, 36-inch winder, pressed wood or equivalent, containing 100 feet of Ashaway 15-pound nylon line or equivalent; 1 No. 6 OShaughnessy hook rigged with 3-inch No. 5 stainless steel wire and a No. 5 barrel swivel attached. A split buck shot mounted on line about 6 inches above hook.

1 fishing rig No. 2, 1/8-inch winder, pressed wood or equivalent, with 100 feet of No. 12 Ashaway white cotton shore line, or equivalent. Equipped with a stubbed mackerel squid jig mounted on a 1/0 OShaughnessy hook equipped with 6 inches of No. 5 stainless steel wire with a No. 5 barrel swivel attached. (NOTE: Hook on this line should be light colored.)

1 fishing rig No. 3, 1/8-inch winder, pressed wood or equivalent, with 100 feet of No. 24 Ashaway white shore line, or equivalent. Equipped with a 1-ounce feather jig with white rubber skirts, chrome plated head, rigged with a 3/0 OShaughnessy hook with 24 inches of No. 9 stainless steel wire leader and a No. 5 barrel swivel attached.

1 fishing rig No. 4, 1/8-inch winder, pressed wood or equivalent, with 100 feet of No. 24 Ashaway white cotton shore line, or equivalent; equipped with a No. 1/0 OShaughnessy hook on 5 inches of No. 9 stainless steel wire with a No. 5 barrel swivel attached. A 2-ounce egg-shaped lead sinker with a 7/64-inch hole mounted on a line about 18 inches above hook with knots tied above and below lead.

1 fishing rig No. 5, 1/8-inch winder, pressed wood or equivalent, with 100 feet of No. 24 Ashaway white cotton shore line, or equivalent, equipped with a No. 7/0 gang hook and a 1-ounce egg-shaped sinker, with 7/64-inch hole, mounted on the line so that this sinker lies directly under the hooks.

1 fishing rig No. 6, 1/8-inch winder, pressed wood or equivalent, with 100 feet No. 48 Ashaway white cotton shore line, or equivalent, equipped with 1 1/2-ounce feather jig rigged with a 6/0 OShaughnessy hook on 2 feet of No. 9 stainless steel wire and No. 2 barrel swivel.

1 fishing rig No. 7, 1/8-inch winder, pressed wood or equivalent, with 100 feet of No. 48 Ashaway white cotton shore line, or equivalent. Equipped with a specially constructed spear of approximately 7 inches over-all in length, special constructed barb on one end with an open eye on the other end, and a U -shaped attachment brazed to the side of the spear to accommodate blade of oar or paddle. This item should be constructed of a good grade of commercial steel, the barb to be rounded at the end and back to be concave; protected with a waterproofed paper tube to be 4 3/4-inches long and 5/8-inch inside diameter.

1 bib, width across bottom 28 inches, width from end of flap to end of flap, 36 inches. Width across the top 30 inches. Length from top of bib to bottom, 15 inches. Bib shall contain 12 pockets in which each of the items shall be inserted. All of the edges shall be hemmed and double stitched. Fastened to the end of the left-hand flap shall be a rayon tape 18 inches long by 1/8-inch, securely sewn. Fastened to the right-hand flap shall be 2 rayon tapes, 18 inches long by 1/8-inch, securely sewn. 7 1/2-inches from each corner of the top of the .bib shall be firmly sewn a rayon tape 24 inches long by 1/8-inch. The bib shall be made of olive drab cotton cloth, herring-bone twill, weight per square yard 8.5, minimum thread count per inch in warp 72, in filling 46; breaking strength in warp 125 pounds, in filling 85, pounds. The test to be made by 1 by 1 by 3 Grab Method.

All material shall be packed in a metal waterproof key opening can. A 3/4-inch ring which shall hinge back flat shall be soldered on the bottom of the container.

NOTE: Each rig shall be marked with sawcuts on both sides of winder for identification. All hooks and swivels to be attached with at least 6 turns of the wire. All lines attached to wivels with a surfmans hitch with three wraps. All fishing hooks to be bound to rigs with scotch tape. (Approximate weight of kit, packed 3 1/2-pounds.)

The container shall bear the manufacturers name or trademark, together with the following inscription:

EMERGENCY FISHING KIT
OPEN ONLY FOR ACTUAL EMERGENCY USE

(t) Daytime distress signals. Four self-contained smoke signals of an approved type. Such signals shall be positively and easily operated and under adverse weather conditions, shall produce, while floating on the surface of the water, smoke in sufficient intensity, volume, and color, as to be easily visible from aircraft.

(u) Signaling mirrors. Two stainless steel or other suitably polished mirrors which shall be wrapped and kept in a waterproof container plainly marked "Signaling Mirrors." All signaling mirrors supplied as new or replacement equipment shall be of an approved type.

153.7 Additional equipment for life rafts approved prior to March 15, 1943, for ocean and coastwise vessels. The following additional equipment shall, during the emergency, be provided:

(a) (Rescinded.)

(b) Drinking cup. One of the drinking cups required by § 59.52 of this chapter shall be suitably marked for measuring in one-half ounce sections for rationing water.

(c) Provisions. The provisions, consisting of hard bread or U. S. Army ration, shall be removed from the life rafts and the following provisions shall be provided for each person the raft is certificated to carry:

(1) Fourteen ounces of biscuits known as "Type C" ration covered by U. S. Army specifications.

(2) Fourteen ounces of pemmican covered by specifications for U. S. Navy Aircraft Emergency Ration Pemmican.

(3) Fourteen ounces of chocolate tablets in waterproof packages or containers, or an additional fourteen ounces of biscuits "Type C" rations covered by U. S. Army specifications.

(5) On and after November 1,1944, the provisions required by this section shall be packaged in hermetically sealed containers of an approved type and stowed in provision lockers or other compartments providing suitable protection.

(6) Equivalents in calorific value may be substituted for pemmican required by item (2) and the milk tablets required by item (4) or both, provided that the substitutes and packing are satisfactory for lifeboat use. Samples of proposed substitutes shall be submitted to the Commandant for approval.

(d) Signal flag. One yellow or bright orange bunting flag to be attached to a boathook pole to attract aircraft.

(e) Water. At least 3 quarts of fresh drinking water per person, including that required by Sec. 59.52 of this chapter. On and after November 1, 1944, the water shall be contained in hermetically sealed cans and stowed in drinking water tanks, lockers or other compartments providing suitable protection.

(f) Wooden plugs. Twenty-five, softwood plugs 3 inches long, tapered from 1/4- to 3/4-inch diameter to plug bullet holes in air tanks.

(g) Line. At least 15 fathoms of 12-thread manila.

(h) First-aid kit.

(1) First-aid kits in all life rafts constructed on and after January 1, 1944, shall be of an approved 24-unit type.

(2) All first-aid kits procured for use in life rafts prior to January 1, 1944, which complied with the applicable regulations, need not be replaced, and may be continued in use, provided such first-aid kits are complete and in good and serviceable condition.

(3) Replacements of first-aid kits in all life rafts subsequent to January 1, 1944, shall be of an approved 24-unit type.

(i) Signaling mirrors. Two stainless steel or other suitably polished mirrors which shall be wrapped and kept in a waterproof container plainly marked "Signaling Mirrors." All signaling mirrors supplied as new or replacement equipment shall be of an approved type.

(j) Fishing kit. On every ocean vessel of over 3,000 gross tons there shall be provided in each life raft one approved fishing kit consisting of the following equipment:

(k) Daytime distress signals. Four self-contained smoke signals of an approved type. Such signals shall be positively and easily operated and under adverse weather conditions, shall produce, while floating on the surface of the water, smoke in sufficient intensity, volume, and color as to be easily visible from aircraft.

153.7a Equipment for life rafts approved on and after March 15, 1943. The provisions of Sec. 59.52 of this chapter, with respect to equipment for life rafts on ocean and coastwise vessels, are suspended for the duration of the emergency insofar as they were applicable to life rafts approved on and after March 15, 1943. Life rafts approved on and after March 15, 1943, shall be equipped as follows:

(a) Blankets. Four blankets in waterproof covers.

(b) Boathook. One boathook of clear-grain white ash, not less than 8 feet long by 1 1/2 inches in diameter.

(c) Bucket. One galvanized iron bucket of not less than 2-gallon capacity with lanyard attached.

(d) Canvas hood and protective curtain. Portable spray curtains shall be provided on all sides extending at least 12 inches above the seats. An easily rigged windbreaker and canopy shall also be provided to protect the occupants from the weather and to enclose and cover the area within the bulwark. The canopy shall be so arranged that it can be used to catch rain water. The side curtains shall be provided with means to allow rowing the raft when the curtains are in place.

(e) Chart. A Hydrographic Office (U. S. Navy) pilot chart, reasonably current, of the waters navigated, in a watertight container (similar to a sounding tube case).

(f) Compass. One efficient liquid compass with not less than a 2-inch card.

(g) Daytime distress signals. At least four approved daytime distress signals.

(h) Distress signals. Twelve self-igniting red lights, or approved equivalent, in a watertight metal case, container to be same as required for lifeboats.

(i) Ditty bag. One canvas bag containing sailmakers palm, needle, sail twine, marline, and marline spike.

(j) Drain plugs. One plug for each drain hole and two spare plugs accessible from either side of raft.

(k) Drinking cups. Two enameled, or otherwise suitable, drinking cups. One of the cups shall be suitably marked for measuring in one-half ounce sections for extracting water from container and rationing water.

(l) Electric water light. One electric water light of approved type with lanyard for attaching to the raft.

(m) First-aid kit.

(1) First-aid kits in all life rafts constructed on and after January 1, 1944, shall be of an approved 24-unit type.

(2) All first-aid kits procured for use in life rafts prior to January 1, 1944, which complied with the applicable regulations, need not be replaced, and may be continued in use, provided such first-aid kits are complete and in good and serviceable condition.

(3) Replacements of first-aid kits in all life rafts subsequent to January 1, 1944, shall be of an approved 24-unit type.

(n) Fishing kit. One approved fishing kit.

(o) Flashlight. One approved flashlight with one extra lamp in a watertight metal case, and one extra set of batteries.

(p) Hatchet. One hatchet attached by a lanyard and readily available for use. All hatchets provided for use on merchant vessels on and after December 1, 1944, shall be of an approved type. Hatchets provided prior to December 1,1944, may be continued in service provided they are in good and serviceable condition.

(q) Illuminating oil. One gallon illuminating oil in oiltight metal container.

(r) Lantern. One lantern with two extra lamp wicks. (Oil to be stowed separately -- not in lantern.)

(s) Life line. One life line properly secured entirely around the sides and ends of the raft, festooned in bights not longer than 3 feet with seine float in each bight. Suitable hand rails may be substituted for life line and seine floats.

(t) Life preservers. Two approved life preservers.

(u) Line. At least 15 fathoms of 12-thread manila.

NOTE: Where the manila rope specified is not obtainable, sisal or jute of a size to provide equivalent breaking strength may be substituted.

(v) Massage oil. One gallon of oil of a type suitable for massaging the feet and legs.

(w) Mast and sail. A suitable mast and sail with proper gear. Sail shall be yellow or bright orange in color.

(x) Matches. At least two boxes, each containing not less than three dozen friction matches in a watertight container.

(y) Oars. Five oars, minimum length 8 feet.

(z) Painter. One painter of manila rope not less than 2% inches in circumference and a length not less than three times the distance between the boat deck and the light draft.

NOTE: Where the manila rope specified is not obtainable, sisal or jute of a size to provide equivalent breaking strength may be substituted.

(aa) Provisions. The following provisions shall be provided for each person the raft is certified to carry:

(1) Fourteen ounces of biscuits known as "Type C" ration covered by U. S. Army specifications.

(2) Fourteen ounces of pemmican covered by specifications for 13. 5. Navy Aircraft Emergency Ration Pemmican.

(3) Fourteen ounces of chocolate tablets in waterproof packages or containers, or an additional 14 ounces of biscuits "Type C" rations covered by U. S. Army specifications.

(4) Fourteen ounces of milk tablets in waterproof packages or containers.

(5) On and after November 1,1944, the provisions required by this section shall be packaged in hermetically sealed containers of an approved type and stowed in provision lockers or other compartments providing suitable protection.

(6) Equivalents in calorific value may be substituted for pemmican required by item (2) and the milk tablets required by item (4) or both, provided that the substitutes and packing are satisfactory for life raft use. Samples of proposed substitutes shall be submitted to the Commandant for approval.

(bb) Rowlocks. Five rowlocks with chains connected for attachment near sockets, one for use with a steering oar.

(cc) Sea anchor. One sea anchor as required for lifeboats by Sec. 59.11 of this chapter.

(dd) Signaling mirrors. Two approved mirrors in a watertight container plainly marked "Signaling Mirrors."

(ee) Signal pistol. A signal pistol outfit consisting of an approved pistol with lanyard, and 12 approved parachute red signal cartridges, all contained in a watertight metal case properly marked.

(ff) Storm oil. One container holding 1 gallon of vegetable or animal oil so constructed that the oil can be easily distributed on the water, and so arranged that it can be attached to the sea anchor.

(gg) Water. A quantity of water equal to 10 quarts per person divided in at least two containers of approximately equal capacity. On and after November 1, 1944, the drinking water required by this section shall be contained in hermetically sealed cans of an approved type and stowed in the drinking water tanks, lockers or other compartments providing suitable protection.

(hh) Wooden plugs. Twenty-five softwood plugs 3 inches long, tapered from 1/4- to 3/4-inch diameter.

153.8 Removal of vessels name and home port.

(a) Vessels of 1,000 gross tons and over operating in coastal, intercoastal, or foreign trade are to have all exterior ships identification and distinguishing marks removed, including the painting out of the name and hailing port. Portable name boards may be utilized when entering and departing from port as may be required.

(b) To effectuate the intent and purpose of paragraph (a) of this section, any part of Subchapter G, Ocean and Coastwise; General Rules and Regulations, and the appropriate rule relating to tank vessels, which are contrary thereto are hereby suspended for the period of the National Emergency.

153.9 Construction of ring life buoys. The following provisions are, during the emergency, applicable as alternative details of construction for ring life buoys to those provided by Secs. 37.8-2, 59.56, 60.49, 76.53, 94.53, and 113.46 of this chapter:

(a) Thread. Thread used in the construction of ring life buoys may be of No. 10, six-cord, glazed finish, heavy cotton thread.

(b) Number of segments for cork or balsa wood ring life buoys. Cork or balsa wood ring life buoys, if constructed of 2 layers, may consist of not more than 6 segments in one layer and not more than 12 segments in the other layer (total 18 segments). Cork or balsa wood ring life buoys may be constructed of 3 layers, with not more than 5 segments in each outside layer and not more than 8 segments in the center layer (total 18 segments). The joints shall, in all cases, be properly staggered and, with the exception of the number of segments permitted above, all other requirements for standard ring life buoys, including the strength test, steaming test, fitting and gluing of segments, dowel-pinning, etc., shall be complied with.

(c) Balsa wood. The balsa wood shall be of the genus Ochroma, kiln-dried to a moisture content not exceeding 12 percent and shall weigh not more than 12 pounds per cubic foot. It shall be sound and free from rot, dote, large or unsound knots, worm holes, and other injurious defects.

(d) Covering. The life buoy shall be covered with an unbleached cotton duck, of a weight of not less than 9.68 ounces per square yard, complying with Federal Specification CCC-D--761.

153.10 Construction of life preservers. The following provisions are, during the emergency, applicable as alternative details of construction for life preservers to those provided in Secs. 28.4-1 to 28.4-10, inclusive, 37.6-1 to 37.6-7, inclusive, 59.55, 60.48, 76.52, 94.52, and 113.44 of this chapter:

(a) Balsa wood life preservers. The balsa wood shall be of the genus Ochroma, thoroughly kiln-dried, and heat-treated to a moisture content not to exceed 5 percent and shall weigh not more than 10 pounds per cubic foot. It shall be sound, free from rot, dote, knots, pith, checks, and other defects. The block in any one pocket of the life preserver may be in not more than two pieces cut lengthwise with the grain, the smaller piece to be not less than 2 inches in width; or, of not more than three pieces when glued together with waterproof glue. The weight of the finished balsa wood used in life preservers constructed under the provisions of Sec. 28.4-5 of this chapter shall be not less than 2 2/3 pounds nor more than 3 3/4 pounds.

(b) New life preservers, covering. New life preservers for use on ocean and coast-wise vessels are to be covered with slate-colored drill which meets the requirements of Navy Department specification 27-D-1-b; or, one side shall be covered with such slatecolored drill and the other side with chrome yellow or orange-colored drill. The covering is to be rendered fire-resistive by treatment with approved fire-resistive substance.

(d) Thread. The thread shall be of a size and strength not less than Type TB, No. 20, 4-ply cotton thread, conforming to the requirements of Federal Specification V-T-276.

153.11 Life preserver light. A life preserver light of an approved type shall be provided for each person on board ocean and coastwise vessels which, when actuated, shall show a red light. Such lights are to be attached to the individual life preserver when worn and are to be provided with means for readily transferring light to the lifesaving suit.

153.12 Lifesaving suits. Ocean and coastwise cargo and tank vessels of over 1,000 gross tons shall be equipped with one approved lifesaving suit for each person employed thereon by the operator of the vessel.

153.13 Emergency flashlights. There shall be provided for each licensed officer on ocean and coastwise vessels an approved flashlight suitable for signaling. Each person while on watch in the engine-room department shall also be provided with an approved flashlight.

153.14 Whistles and jackknives. On all ocean and coastwise vessels of over 1,000 gross tons, each person employed thereon by the operator of the vessel shall be equipped with a police whistle and a sailors jackknife of rugged construction, the blade of which shall be about 3 inches in length, with a sheep-foot point. The handle of the jackknife shall be fitted with a shackle for attaching a lanyard. Such knives and whistles shall be carried, when practicable, attached to life jackets or lifesaving suits. All whistles and jackknives provided for use on merchant vessels on and after January 1, 1944, shall be of an approved type. Such equipment procured prior to January 1,1944, may be continued in service provided it is in good and serviceable condition.

153.14a Abandon-ship kit. All ocean and coastwise vessels of 3,000 gross tons and over shall carry at least two abandon-ship kits. The articles composing the abandon-ship kit, as listed below, shall be packed in a compact manner in a watertight container. Unless the container is of such nature that tampering will be readily evident, it shall be provided with a seal over the opening device. The kit shall be fitted with a shoulder-carrying strap or equivalent and, as packed, shall be sufficiently buoyant to float if dropped overboard. It shall be prominently marked and the predominant outside coloring of the case or container shall be orange or chrome yellow. The kit shall contain the following articles:

There shall be included in each kit three printed copies of the following instructions:

DIRECTIONS FOR GIVING MORPHINE

1. Remove the transparent shield from end of syrette.

2. Holding the wire by the loop, push wire through the needle into the syrette, thus breaking the seal. Withdraw the wire.

3. Stick the needle under the skin of the arm or shoulder at an angle of 45 deg. and squeeze syrette until tube is flat.

4. Withdraw the needle and throw the syrette away.

5. After the first dose additional injections may be given every 3 hours as long as necessary. First dose may be doubled if man is badly injured.

DIRECTIONS FOR USING SULFADIAZINE TABLETS

Each wounded or burned man should be given a single dose of eight of the sulfadiazine tablets. No more sulfadiazine should be given.

DIRECTIONS FOR USING SULFANILAMIDE POWDER

Open one of the packages of sulfanilamide and sprinkle the powder directly into the wound after which a compress and bandage may be applied. Sulfanilamide is a powerful and effective antiseptic and if properly used will arrest and prevent infection which might otherwise prove fatal.

DIRECTIONS FOR USING OIL CLEANSING SOLUTION

The solution is supplied for the purpose of removing fuel oil or like substance from the eyelids, nose, and lips. A pledget of cotton or a small piece of cloth dipped in the solution should be saturated and lightly rubbed over the skin surface until the oil is removed. To allay or prevent infection or irritation of the eyes from fuel oil, the eye ointment provided in the first-aid kit should be used.

DIRECTIONS FOR USING TANNIC ACID JELLY

Apply thick layer of jelly to gauze compress of sufficient size (obtained from first-aid kit) to completely cover the burned area. Lay this dressing on the burn and hold in place with a bandage loosely tied. On small burns the jelly may be used without, a dressing, if desired. If, when it is necessary to change dressing, there is a tendency to stick, soak the compress in fresh or sea water to loosen it and prevent injury to the area.

DIRECTIONS FOR USING CHEMICAL HEATING PADS

Chemical heating pads are furnished for the purpose of supplying heat to the bodies of persons suffering from shock. Shock is a disturbance of the nervous and circulatory system which follows injury. The shock in itself may be more severe than the injury. Treatment of the shock is most important and the patient must, in all cases, be kept warm. A chemical heating pad should be utilized to apply heat locally to the abdomen and groin. Care should be taken not to burn the skin, especially of an unconscious person. The pad should be wrapped, if necessary, in cloths or clothing. For details of heating pad operation see directions on heating pad.

Abandon-ship kits shall be stowed in separate locations as designated by the master who shall instruct officers in charge of boats regarding understood arrangements as to securing a kit, should it become necessary to abandon the vessel.

153.15 Lifeboat fall reels and lowering bitts. On ocean and coastwise vessels, lifeboat fall reels of suitable type and capacity are to be fitted in such location as will give a direct lead to the lowering bitts. On all self-propelled vessels of over 1,000 gross tons where cleats are fitted in lieu of lowering bitts, cruciform bitts shall be provided where necessary and located in such position as will render lowering practicable.

153.15a Lifeboat fenders. All ocean and coastwise vessels of 1,000 gross tons and over shall have fitted over projections and openings in way of the lifeboats, between the boat deck and the light load line, substantial vertical skids constructed of wood or other suitable material to insure the unobstructed passage to the water of the lifeboats when lowered from the high side of the vessel when heavily listed.

Lifeboats on all ocean and coastwise vessels which are fitted with mechanical means for lowering are to be equipped with approved vertical fenders or skates on the inboard side extending from the gunwale well under the turn of the bilge, to facilitate launching on the high side of a listed vessel. Such fenders are to be sufficient in number to prevent damage to the boats while being lowered. Fenders or skates are to be designed so as to be light in weight and shall be so fitted as to be easily detached after the lifeboat is afloat. If wooden fenders are fitted, they shall be made of the best grade of oak or equivalent hard wood. Spaces in way of open decks below stowage positions of lifeboats into which boats might swing are to be fitted with strong horizontal bars between deck stanchions outboard in order that the boat may descend smoothly on the fenders or skates to the water.

153.15b Lifeboat disengaging apparatus. All lifeboats constructed after January 1, 1944, for use on ocean and coastwise vessels of over 3,000 gross tons shall be fitted with an approved disengaging apparatus so arranged as to make it possible for the lifeboats to be launched while such vessels are under way or stopped, and for both ends of the boat to be released simultaneously by one person. The gears shall be capable of being released from one position in the boat while the boat is fully loaded with allowed persons and equipment. Simultaneous release shall be effected by partially rotating a shaft which shall be continuous and extend from point of contact with the hooks. The releasing gear shall be designed and installed so as to afford the least interference with stowage arrangements and the comfort of the occupants of the boat.

NOTE: Approval of all lifeboat disengaging apparatus installed on ocean and coastwise vessels of over 3,000 gross tons which does not conform with the above features is withdrawn effective January 1, 1944. This withdrawal of approval shall not affect existing installations or replacements.

153.16 Life lines rigged from davit span. On ocean and coastwise vessels, each lifeboat shall be provided with at least four life lines fitted to a span between the davit heads. Such life lines shall be knotted at approximately 3-foot intervals and of sufficient length to reach the water at the vessels lightest seagoing draft.

153.17 Lifesaving nets. On all mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise vessels of over 1,000 gross tons, there shall be provided for each set of davits a lifesaving net or nets aggregating at least 10 feet in width to reach from the rail to the light load line. Steel nets shall be made in sections having a width of 5 feet. On and after January 31, 1943, all new installations or replacements of lifesaving nets shall be of an approved type.

153.18 Lifeboat and fire drills. On all ocean and coastwise vessels the master or person in charge is responsible for instructing all on board in the use and purpose of the emergency equipment provided and for the conduct of frequent drills illustrating its use. The master and officers are to drill their crews until all on board are thoroughly familiar with the use and purpose of all safety equipment; are able to row and are familiar with the procedure for lowering boats, launching rafts and are proficient in quickly donning their lifesaving suits, if carried. In this connection a fire drill and a lifeboat drill with a boat in the water and boat crews exercised in rowing is to be held at every port of loading or discharge. When the master is satisfied that each member of the crew thoroughly understands his duties, he may then require that lifeboat drills including lowering of all boats and the exercise of each member of the crew in lowering the boats and rowing be held at longer intervals, but in no case longer than 30 days except where a vessel may be at sea for a longer period.

On vessels engaged in voyages of more than 3 days duration a lifeboat muster and fire drill are to be held at sea not less than once in every four consecutive days, and the master and officers are to instruct all of the crew with the exception of those who cannot be relieved of their immediate duties in the use of the various equipments which are on the vessel and fitted in the lifeboats. On all ships which carry persons in addition to the crew as passengers, such persons are, where practicable, to be required by the master to participate in lifeboat drills and receive instruction in the functioning and use of the various types of equipment.

153.19 Blackout enforcement. On ocean and coastwise vessels the master shall, when the vessel is at sea, maintain a complete blackout of his vessel from dusk until dawn except for the display of running lights in such areas and under such conditions as may be directed by competent naval authority.

153.19a Luminous marking. All ocean and coastwise cargo and tank ships of 3,000 gross tons and over and all ocean and coastwise passenger vessels shall be provided with interior marking in the accommodation, machinery, and working spaces of the vessel in the form of an approved luminous cloth or tape. Such marking shall be sufficient in character to clearly show in darkness the location of exit doors, ports, ladders, companionways, the location of emergency lights, control valves, if necessary, and similar vital locations or accessories.

153.20 Emergency lights. On mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise vessels of 1,000 gross tons or over there shall be provided self-contained, battery-operated emergency lights of an approved type, at least 12 in number, located throughout the vessel in readily accessible locations and plainly marked. These lights shall be portable and shall be readily removable.

153.21 Means of escape on vessels

(a) Means of escape on new vessels. On mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise passenger, cargo, and tank vessels, certificated for the first time after October 1, 1944, the means of escape or emergency exits required by this section shall be provided.

(b) Definitions. Certain terms used in this section are defined as follows:

(1) A "crash panel" is a panel of frangible material or a panel of nonfrangible material which, when installed in an opening in a door or other structure, may be readily removed by kicking out.

(2) An "escape panel" is a panel of metal or other nonfrangible material hinged or otherwise secured over an opening by "dogs" or other means.

(3) An "escape hatch" is a covering over an opening in a deck or other structure, hinged or otherwise secured to such deck or structure.

(c) Number and arrangement of means of escape or emergency exits for new vessels. Plans and specifications showing location, type, and arrangement of means of escape or emergency exits shall be submitted to Headquarters for approval. Deviation from the requirements will be considered only when it is shown to the satisfaction of Headquarters that such deviation is unavoidable due to construction features. In all cases, when plans are submitted to and approved by Headquarters and the escapes are installed in accordance with the plans, the vessel shall be considered to be in complete compliance with the regulations. The means of escape or emergency exits shall be provided and arranged as follows:

(1) Each room occupied by one or more persons shall have at least two means of emergency exit and each passageway, compartment, public room, or space serving or containing more than two rooms shall have at least three means of emergency exit. Spaces used as storerooms are not required to be fitted with crash panels, escape panels, or escape hatches.

(2) Each public bathroom, washroom, or toilet room, accommodating four (4) or more persons at one time shall have at least two means of emergency exit. The exits may be of any type specified in this section but where entrance doors are not fitted or where half doors are fitted to such bathrooms, washrooms, or toilet rooms, no other means of escape shall be required.

(3) The exits for each space shall be located as remotely from each other as possible to reduce the likelihood of damage blocking all avenues of escape.

(4) In general, where there are four or more widely separated means of escape from a deckhouse, it will not be necessary to provide these doors with offset hinges or escape panels.

(5) In no case shall a main fire screen bulkhead be pierced to provide a secondary means of escape, nor shall any watertight bulkhead, watertight deck, or watertight door below the bulkhead deck be pierced for the installation of emergency escapes.

(6) Brigs or other spaces for the confinement of persons need be equipped with only one means of emergency exit which shall be a door of the type specified in paragraph (e) (2) of this section and which may be capable of being secured from the outside.

(7) On mechanically propelled vessels of over 1,000 gross tons it is also required that at least two wire or chain ladders (one on each side) leading directly to the highest part of the engine-room casing shall be provided and arranged in a way most likely to allow the escape of engine-room personnel in the event of damage to the fixed ladders and gratings. On steam vessels a similar ladder shall be provided in the fire room running through the ventilator if practicable. Such ladders are not to be hauled taut. They are to be lashed loosely at the floor plates.

(d) Designs and arrangements for means of escape for new vessels. The following requirements shall be followed in the design and installation of means of escape or emergency exits:

(1) The crash panels, escape panels, and escape hatches shall be operable without the use of tools.

(2) All crash panels shall be designed and installed for ready removal from either side.

(3) Crash panels shall have the same fire-resistive qualities as the door or structure in which they are installed.

(4) The crash panels, escape panels, and escape hatches shall have a minimum clear opening of 18 inches by 18 inches or 18 inches diameter; however, where it can be shown that this size opening is unreasonable or impracticable, a minimum clear opening of 16 inches by 16 inches or 16 inches diameter may be allowed.

(5) Crash panels shall be of frangible material substantially secured to the door or other structure or shall be of nonfrangible material and so installed that the fastenings will give way easily when kicked, allowing the panel to be removed whole. The escape openings shall be free from garment entangling projections. The crash panel shall be marked with a suitable permanent notice placed on the side from which it is to serve as an exit. A suggested marking is:

EMERGENCY
CRASH PANEL
KICK OUT

(6) All escape panels and escape hatches shall be arranged so that they may be operated from either side. They shall be clearly marked "emergency exit." A maul or a short length of pipe shall be available to free jammed "dogs" where doors and hatches are fitted with "dogs." Where escape panels and escape hatches are so located that there is a possibility of cargo, equipment, or stores interfering with their operation, special care shall be taken to guard against such interferences.

(e) Acceptable means of escape or emergency exits for new vessels. As one means of escape or emergency exit, each of the following will be considered satisfactory:

(1) A door having a crash panel or escape panel.

(2) A door without a crash panel or escape panel and with offset hinges so arranged that it fits against the face of the frame with a bearing surface of at least one-half inch, and no part of the door inside the frame.

(3) A crash panel or escape panel in a bulkhead.

(4) An entrance opening to a room to which no door is fitted.

(5) Escape hatch fitted in a deck. Necessary ladders, steps, or hand grabs to insure quick exit shall be fitted in order to reach the escape hatch.

(6) A porthole with a clear opening at least 16 inches in diameter or a window of at least 16 inches by 16 inches when located in a deckhouse and fitted where necessary with steps, hand grabs, or ladders. Portholes in the shell leading directly overboard shall not be considered as a means of escape.

(7) A skylight that may be easily opened at point of exit when fitted with a ladder to afford quick exit and the passage of a person through the skylight will not necessitate the removal or cutting of metal screens or blackout equipment. Skylights which are operated by remote control are not considered as satisfactory means of exit.

(f) Means of escape on existing vessels. On all mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise passenger, cargo, and tank vessels which are certificated on or prior to October 1, 1944, the number of means of emergency exits prescribed in this section shall be complied with, insofar as conditions permit. Such compliance shall be made at the time of annual inspection or at such other times as may be appropriate, so as to cause the least interference with the operation of the vessel. While it is not intended that vessels be delayed for non-compliance, it is expected that diligent efforts will be made to meet this requirement as rapidly as is possible.

(g) Administration. When the requirements concerning emergency escapes have been substantially complied with to the satisfaction of Headquarters or the District Coast Guard Officer of one district, subsequent changes or additions shall not be required by the District Coast Guard Officer of another district, without prior approval by Headquarters.

153.21a Portable electric megaphones. Mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise vessels of 3,000 gross tons and over shall be equipped with two approved self-contained electric portable megaphone units for communication purposes in the event of failure of the regular interior communication systems. Each unit shall be provided with an extra set of tubes and batteries packaged in a suitable container.

153.22 Removal of calcium water lights. All calcium type self-igniting water lights shall be removed from all ocean and coastwise vessels and shall be replaced with approved electric water lights.

153.23 Emergency radio installation. There shall be available and readily accessible (other than in a lifeboat) on board mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise vessels of over 1,000 gross tons for use in lifeboats at least one portable radio installation which complies with the requirements of the Federal Communications Commission or in lieu thereof there shall be located in at least one lifeboat on each side of the vessel at all times while at sea a radio installation (in portable form or permanently installed) which complies with the requirements of the Federal Communications Commission for this purpose.

153.24 Watertight case for distress lights. The watertight case required for distress lights in lifeboats and life rafts may be of galvanized iron not less than No. 22 B. W. G. in thickness, or of equivalent corrosion-resistant material.

153.25 Life floats. On each mechanically propelled ocean and coastwise vessel of 1,000 gross tons and over, there shall be provided at least two approved doughnut-type life floats of at least 15-person capacity. These floats shall be stowed in such location that they may be launched directly overboard and so arranged that they would have the best chance of floating free of the ship if there is no time to launch them. An electric water light of an approved type shall be attached to each float by a suitable lanyard. At least two paddles are to be lashed to the sides of the float. The usual stowage for such floats is to be aft. One float may, however, be stowed in such other position as may be designated by the master.

153.26 Security inspection. The master is responsible for the proper performance and condition of all lifesaving and other safety equipment and in this connection he shall designate an officer or other person whose duty it shall be to inspect the vessel daily to determine that all such equipment is in good order and ready for immediate use. He shall report the findings of his daily inspection to the master who shall, if any deficiencies or other undesirable conditions are reported, take such action and issue such orders as may be necessary to place the equipment in proper condition, insofar as is practicable.

153.27 Cargo; loading and stowage. If at any time prior to or after completion of the loading of any vessel in a United States port, the master shall deem that she is unseaworthy due to the stowage or nature of the cargo or both, he shall immediately so inform the District Office. An immediate examination of the vessel shall be made and, if necessary, the certificate of inspection shall be withdrawn until such time as the conditions found are satisfactorily corrected.

153.28 Administration. If compliance with any of the requirements set forth in this part is shown to be unreasonable or impracticable, exemption may be granted upon satisfactory presentation of the facts and circumstances. Application for any such exemption should be made to the nearest District Office. Headquarters shall be informed when exemptions have been granted, together with reasons therefor.

In all cases, however, where the materials or equipments necessitated by these requirements are not available, it shall not be necessary to apply for formal exemption as above. While it is not intended that vessels be delayed for noncompliance, it is expected that diligent efforts will be made to meet these requirements as rapidly as is possible.


Source:
United States Coast Guard Regulations Applicable to Certain Vessels and Shipping During Emergency -- Merchant Marine --
NAVCG 112 (Title 46, C. F. R. Parts 150 to 153, incl., 155, 156, 159 to 161, incl.) December 1944. United States Government Printing Office, Washington: 1944


Lifeboats, Lifeboat Equipment and Rafts [As taught to U.S. Maritime Service Trainees in World War II]

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